Purchase of goods from a private person - how to document?
Trade entrepreneurs purchase goods not only from other stores or wholesalers, but also from natural persons who do not conduct business. How to document the purchase of goods from a private individual? Can such a transaction be shown in the revenue and expense ledger at all? We answer below.
The purchase of goods from a private individual cannot be documented with internal evidence
Each economic event that relates to tax issues related to the conducted activity is recorded in the tax revenue and expense ledger on the basis of a document confirming its occurrence. However, it cannot be any document - it must meet the requirements of accounting vouchers. It goes without saying that invoices or receipts confirming the purchase of goods will be considered as such evidence. However, if the goods were purchased from a natural person not conducting business activity, the buyer will not receive documents such as an invoice or a receipt confirming the purchase. Is it possible, therefore, to enter the goods purchased from a natural person by means of an internal ID?
Although the internal voucher is an accounting voucher, however, in accordance with the Regulation on maintaining the Fiscal Register, it is used as proof of purchase of goods only when:
- purchase, directly from a domestic producer or breeder, plant and animal products, not processed industrially or processed industrially, if the processing involves ensiling plant products or milk processing or slaughtering slaughter animals and post-slaughter processing of these animals;
- purchasing auxiliary materials in retail trade units;
- purchase from the public, classified in the Polish Classification of Products and Services (PKWiU), raw materials of herbal plants and wild forest herbs, berries, forest fruits and forest mushrooms (PKWiU ex 02.30.40.0);
- purchase from the public of post-consumer waste constituting secondary raw materials, excluding the purchase (purchase) of non-ferrous metals and cars and their components intended for scrap;
As you can see, only the purchase of goods as mentioned above can be documented with internal evidence. So how do you document the purchase of goods from an individual that are not covered by the exceptions?
The sales contract will be the confirmation of the purchase of goods from a natural person
The problem of documenting the purchase of goods from a natural person not running a business will be solved by drawing up a sales contract. The entrepreneur should, however, ensure that the document contains the data necessary for the accounting document. The minimum scope of data that should be included in the contract confirming the purchase from a natural person is:
- reliable identification of the issuer or indication of the parties (names and addresses) participating in the business operation to which the contract relates,
- the date of the contract and the date of the actual purchase, if different from the date of the contract,
- the object of the economic operation and its value as well as its quantification, if it is measurable in natural units,
- signatures of people on both sides.
It is best to draw up such a contract in two identical copies, so that each party can keep one for themselves.
On the basis of a sales contract prepared in this way, the entrepreneur will make an entry regarding the purchase of goods in the tax book, and at the end of the month will enter a number corresponding to the entry in the KPiR and attach to the accounting documentation.
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Purchase of goods from a private person and VAT
When purchasing from natural persons, the entrepreneur cannot deduct VAT on the purchased goods. A prepared sales contract does not constitute a document on the basis of which VAT can be deducted.
Entrepreneur - don't forget about PCC
When making a purchase under a sales contract, the buyer must not forget about the tax on civil law transactions that may occur when purchasing goods from a natural person. If the value of the contract exceeds PLN 1,000, a tax obligation arises with the buyer due to tax on civil law transactions. In connection with the above, the buyer is obliged to pay the tax in the amount of 2% of the contract value (the rate for the contract for the sale of movables) and submit the PCC-3 form to the tax office within 14 days.
To sum up: when purchasing goods from natural persons who do not run a business, the entrepreneur should remember:
- about the appropriate documentation of the event, e.g. a sales contract containing the data required for accounting documents;
- o the obligation to settle PCC tax in the case of a contract of sale to the buyer (the exemption from this obligation applies to contracts whose value does not exceed PLN 1000).
How to book goods from a private person in the wfirma.pl system?
In order to post the goods under the contract of sale from a private individual, go to the EXPENSES »ACCOUNTING> ADD» INVOICE WITHOUT VAT tab, where you must select the appropriate type of expense (if it is a product for resale, it will be a PURCHASE OF COMMERCIAL GOODS AND BASIC MATERIALS) . In the buyer data, select NIP as NIP and complete the remaining information about the seller. Then complete the remaining data from the document, as the date of issue, enter the date on which the contract of sale was issued, and as the number indicate "Contract of sale of sale of ...".
The expense booked in this way will be included in the appropriate column of KPiR (in the case of trade goods it will be column 10 of KPiR - Purchase of trade goods and materials.